1652 is the number of "mother tongues" recognized by the 1961 census !
Jati , Sampradaya , Boli , Jal-Paan , Shilpa changes in India every little distance , and in fact even Kaal Rahasya or time-secrets , as different time zones exist simultaneously .
(Caste , Religious/Spiritual Sect , Dialect/Language, Water/Food, Craft/Artisanship , Time Phases )
You cannot even begin understanding India without understanding Jati , the right word for which is an endogamous community , not caste . Endogamous meaning that they marry within the community.
There were multiple sub-Jatis and in many there still are, in what is considered in popular imagination as Yadav , Vaishya , Brahmin , Kshatriya along with hundreds of sub-jatis depending on the occupational or knowledge specialisations or regional variations or sectarian beliefs among artisans and skill based service communities.